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苛性钠

来源:黄骅市辰泰化工有限公司 发布时间:2020-10-04热度:

 氢氧化钠 
 Sodium hydroxide
 
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 同义词 苛性钠一般指氢氧化钠 
 sodium sodium sodium sodium hydroxide
 
 本词条由“科普中国”科学百科词条编写与应用工作项目 审核 。 
This entry is compiled and applied by the Science Encyclopedia of popular Science China.
 
 氢氧化钠,无机化合物,化学式NaOH,也称苛性钠、烧碱、固碱、火碱、苛性苏打。氢氧化钠具有强碱性,腐蚀性极强,可作酸中和剂、 配合掩蔽剂、 沉淀剂、沉淀掩蔽剂、显色剂、皂化剂、去皮剂、洗涤剂等,用途非常广泛。 [1] 
Sodium hydroxide, inorganic compounds, chemical formula NaOH, also known as caustic soda, caustic soda, solid alkali, fire alkali, caustic soda. Sodium hydroxide has strong alkalinity and strong corrosion. It can be used as acid neutralizer, combined masking agent, precipitator, precipitation masking agent, chromogenic agent, saponifier, peeling agent, detergent and so on. [1]
 
 工业生产氢氧化钠的方法有苛化法和电解法两种。苛化法按原料不同分为纯碱苛化法和天然碱苛化法;电解法可分为隔膜电解法和离子交换膜法。 [1] 
There are two methods for industrial production of sodium hydroxide: causticization and electrolysis. The caustic method can be divided into soda caustic method and natural alkali carbonization method according to different raw materials, and electrolysis method can be divided into diaphragm electrolysis method and ion exchange membrane method. [1]
 
 工作人员应作好防护,若不慎触及皮肤和眼睛,应立即用大量水冲洗干净。工作环境应具有良好的通风条件。氢氧化钠水溶液有滑腻感,溶于水时产生很高的热量,操作时要带防护目镜及橡胶手套,注意不要溅到皮肤上或眼睛里。 [1] 
 Staff should be protected, if inadvertently touch the skin and eyes, should immediately rinse with a large amount of water. The working environment should have good ventilation conditions. Sodium hydroxide aqueous solution has a greasy feeling, soluble in water to produce very high heat, operation should wear protective eyepiece and rubber gloves, pay attention not to splash on the skin or eyes. [1]
 
  

 
 中文名 
Chinese Name
 
 氢氧化钠 [1] 
 [1] of sodium hydroxide
 
 外文名 
Foreign Language
 
 Sodium hydroxide [1] 
 氢氧化钠[1]
 
 别 名 
别称
 
 烧碱、火碱、固碱、苛性苏打、苛性钠 [1] 
烧碱,火碱,固碱,苛性他中间打,苛性化合物[1]
 
 化学式 
 Chemical formula
 
 NaOH [1] 
 纳OH[1]
 
 分子量 
Molecular weight
 
 40.00 [1] 
40.00 [1]
 
 CAS登录号 
 CAS Login ID
 
 1310-73-2 [1] 
1310-73-2 [1]
 
 EINECS登录号 
 EINECS Login ID
 
 215-185-5 [1] 
215-185-5 [1]
 
 熔 点 
Melting point
 
 318.4 ℃ 
318.4 ℃
 
 沸 点 
Boiling point
 
 1390 ℃ 
1390 ℃
 
 性 质 
 Nature
 
 强碱性、强吸湿性、强腐蚀性 [1] 
Highly alkaline, hygroscopic, corrosive [1]
 
 饱和蒸气压 
saturated vapor pressure
 
 0.13(739℃)kPa 
0.13(739°C)千帕
 
 相对密度(水=1) 
 Relative density (water =1)
 
 2.13 
二点一三
 
 临界压力 
 Critical pressure
 
 25MPa 
 25MPa
 
 辛醇/水分配系数 
 octanol/water partition coefficient
 
 -3.88 
负三点八八
 
 溶解性 
 Solubility
 
 易溶于水、乙醇、甘油,不溶于丙酮、乙醚 [1] 
Easily soluble in water, ethanol, glycerin, insoluble in acetone, ether [1]
 
 目录 
 Directory
 
 1 计算化学数据 
1. Calculation of chemical data
 
 2 性质与毒理学资料 
2 Nature and Toxicological Information
 
 ▪ 性质 
▪ nature
 
 ▪ 毒理资料 
▪ Toxicological Information
 
 3 合成方法 
Method of synthesis
 
 ▪ 苛化法 
 ▪ causticization
 
 ▪ 电解法 
 ▪ electrolysis
 
 4 提纯 
4 purification
 
 5 检测 
5 Detection
 
 6 应用 
 6. Applications
 
 7 储存 
 7 Storage
 
 8 安全防护措施 
8 Safety precautions
 
 9 应急措施 
 9. Emergency response
 
 ▪ 急救措施 
 ▪ First Aid Measures
 
 ▪ 泄露处理 
 ▪ Disclosure
 
 ▪ 消防方法 
 ▪ fire protection methods
 
 10 氢氧化钠水体污染处理 
10 Sodium hydroxide water pollution treatment
 
 ▪ 分析方法 
▪ analysis methodology
 
 ▪ 水体污染硫酸中和 
Sulfuric acid neutralization ▪ water pollution
 
 ▪ 水体污染盐酸中和 
Hydrochloric acid neutralization ▪ water pollution
 
 计算化学数据 
 Calculation of chemical data
 
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Editor
 
 氢键供体数量 
 Number of hydrogen bond donors
 
 1 [1] 
1 [1]
 
 氢键受体数量 
 Number of hydrogen bond receptors
 
 1 [1] 
1 [1]
 
 可旋转化学键数量 
 Number of rotating chemical bonds
 
 0 [1] 
0 [1]
 
 互变异构体数量 
 Number of isomers
 
 0 [1] 
0 [1]
 
 重原子数量 
 Number of heavy atoms
 
 2 [1] 
2 [1]
 
 表面电荷 
 Surface charge
 
 0 [1] 
0 [1]
 
 复杂度 
Complexity
 
 2 [1] 
2 [1]
 
 同位素原子数 
Isotope atomic number
 
 2 [1] 
2 [1]
 
 共价键单元数量 
Number of covalent bond units
 
 2 [1] 
2 [1]
 
 拓扑分子极性表面积 
Polar surface area of topological molecules
 
 1 [1] 
1 [1]
 
 性质与毒理学资料 
 Nature and Toxicology Information
 
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Editor
 
 性质 
Nature
 
 氢氧化钠具有强碱性和有很强的吸湿性。易溶于水,溶解时放热,水溶液呈碱性,有滑腻感;腐蚀性极强,对纤维、皮肤、玻璃、陶瓷等有腐蚀作用。与金属铝和锌、非金属硼和硅等反应放出氢;与氯、溴、碘等卤素发生歧化反应;与酸类起中和作用而生成盐和水。 [1] 
Sodium hydroxide has strong alkalinity and strong hygroscopicity. Soluble in water, exothermic when dissolved, aqueous solution is alkaline, greasy; extremely corrosive, corrosive to fiber, skin, glass, ceramics and so on. Reaction with metal aluminum and zinc, non-metallic boron and silicon releases hydrogen; disproportionation with halogens such as chlorine, bromine and iodine; neutralization with acids to form salts and water. [1]
 
 毒理资料 
 Toxicological data
 
 氢氧化钠属中等毒性。其危险特性为:遇水和水蒸气大量放热,形成腐蚀性溶液。与酸发生中和反应并放热。具有强腐蚀性。燃烧(分解)产物:可能产生有害的毒性烟雾。其侵入途径为:吸入、食入。其健康危害为:有强烈刺激和腐蚀性。粉尘或烟雾刺激眼和呼吸道,腐蚀鼻中隔;皮肤和眼直接接触可引起灼伤;误服可造成消化道灼伤,粘膜糜烂、出血和休克。 [2] 
sodium hydroxide is of moderate toxicity. Its dangerous characteristics are: water and water vapor heat release, forming corrosive solution. Neutralization reaction with acid and exothermic. Strong corrosive. Combustion (decomposition) products: may produce harmful toxic smoke. The route of invasion is: inhalation, ingestion. Its health hazards are: strong stimulation and corrosion. Dust or smoke irritates the eye and respiratory tract and corrodes the nasal septum; direct contact between the skin and eyes can cause burns; accidental administration can cause burns of the digestive tract, mucosal erosion, bleeding and shock. [2]
 
 合成方法 
Synthesis methods
 
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 生产烧碱的方法有苛化法和电解法两种。苛化法按原料不同分为纯碱苛化法和天然碱苛化法;电解法可分为隔膜电解法和离子交换膜法。 [1] 
 There are two methods to produce caustic soda: causticization and electrolysis. The caustic method can be divided into soda caustic method and natural alkali carbonization method according to different raw materials, and electrolysis method can be divided into diaphragm electrolysis method and ion exchange membrane method. [1]
 
 苛化法 
Causation
 
 纯碱苛化法将纯碱、石灰分别经化碱制成纯碱溶液、化灰制成石灰乳,于99~101°C进行苛化反应,苛化液经澄清、蒸发浓缩至40%以上,制得液体烧碱。将浓缩液进一步熬浓固化,制得固体烧碱成品。苛化泥用水洗涤,洗水用于化碱。其反应方程式如下:Na2CO3+Ca(OH)2→2NaOH+CaCO3↓。 [1] 
The caustic soda and lime were made into soda solution and lime milk by caustic soda method. The caustic soda was produced by caustic soda °C 99~101. The concentrated liquid was further solidified to produce solid caustic soda finished product. The caustic mud is washed with water and washed with water for alkali. The reaction equations are as follows: Na2CO3Ca (OH)2→2 NaOH CaCO3↓. [1]
 
 天然碱苛化法是天然碱经粉碎、溶解(或者碱卤)、澄清后加入石灰乳在95~100°C进行苛化,苛化液经澄清、蒸发浓缩至NaOH浓度46%左右、清液冷却、析盐后进一步熬浓。制得固体烧碱成品。苛化泥用水洗涤,洗水用于溶解天然碱。其反应方程式为:Na2CO3+Ca(OH)2→2NaOH+CaCO3↓ , NaHCO3+Ca(OH)2→NaOH+CaCO3↓+H2O。 [1] 
Natural alkali quenching method is natural alkali after crushing, dissolving (or alkali halogen), after clarification add lime milk in 95~100°C for caustic treatment, caustic solution after clarification, evaporation concentrated to the NaOH concentration of about 46%, clear liquid cooling, salt evolution after further thickening. The solid caustic soda finished product was prepared. The caustic mud is washed with water and washed with water to dissolve natural alkali. The reaction equations are as follows: Na2CO3Ca (OH)2→2 NaOH CaCO3↓, NaHCO3Ca (OH)2 NaOH CaCO3↓2 [1]
 
 电解法 
Electrolysis
 
 隔膜电解法将原盐化盐后加入纯碱、烧碱、氯化钡精制剂除去钙、镁、硫酸根离子等杂质,再于澄清槽中加入聚丙烯酸钠或苛化麸皮以加速沉淀,砂滤后加入盐酸中和,盐水经预热后送去电解,电解液经预热、蒸发、分盐、冷却,制得液体烧碱,进一步熬浓即得固体烧碱成品。盐泥洗水用于化盐。其反应方程式为:2NaCl+2H2O[电解]→2NaOH+Cl2↑+H2↑。 [1] 
After adding soda, caustic soda and barium chloride to remove calcium, magnesium and sulfate ions, sodium polyacrylate or caustic bran was added to the clarifier to accelerate precipitation. After sand filtration, hydrochloric acid was added to neutralize, brine was preheated and sent to electrolysis. Salt mud washing water is used to make salt. The reaction equation is :2 NaCl 2H2O[ electrolysis ]→2 NaOH Cl2↑H2↑. [1]
 
 离子交换膜法将原盐化盐后按传统的办法进行盐水精制,把一次精盐水经微孔烧结碳素管式过滤器进行过滤后,再经螫合离子交换树脂塔进行二次精制,使盐水中钙、镁含量降到0.002%以下,将二次精制盐水电解,于阳极室生成氯气,阳极室盐水中的Na+通过离子膜进入阴极室与阴极室的OH-生成氢氧化钠,H+直接在阴极上放电生成氢气。电解过程中向阳极室加入适量的高纯度盐酸以中和返迁的OH-,阴极室中应加入所需纯水。在阴极室生成的高纯烧碱浓度为30%~32%(质量),可以直接作为液碱产品,也可以进一步熬浓,制得周体烧碱成品。其反应方程式为:2NaCl+2H2O→2NaOH+H2↑+Cl2↑。 [1] 
The content of calcium and magnesium in salt water was reduced to less than 0.002% by ion exchange membrane method, and chlorine gas was formed in anode chamber. The Na in anode chamber salt water was discharged into cathode chamber and cathode chamber OH- to form sodium hydroxide H discharged directly on cathode to form hydrogen. During electrolysis, proper amount of high purity hydrochloric acid should be added to the anode chamber to neutralize the OH-, cathode chamber. In the shade High soda concentration of 30%~32%(quality) can be directly used as liquid alkali products, or further thickening can be made to produce pericyte caustic soda finished products. The reaction equation is :2 NaCl 2H2O→2 NaOH H2↑Cl2↑. [1]
 
 提纯 
Purification
 
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 氢氧化钠含有的杂质通常有铁、氯化钠、硅酸盐、碳酸盐等。取100g工业氢氧化钠溶于1L无水乙醇(不含乙醛)中,在不含二氧化碳、湿气的干燥空气中过滤,去除氯化物、碳酸盐、硅酸盐等杂质,浓缩滤液去除乙醇,随着浓缩分离掉生成的固体乙醇钠。用纯无水乙醇洗涤数次,长时间减压加热去除残留的乙醇,则得到纯度为99.8%左右的氢氧化钠。 [1] 
 Sodium hydroxide usually contains impurities such as iron, sodium chloride, silicate, carbonate, etc. Take 100 g of industrial sodium hydroxide dissolved in 1 L of anhydrous ethanol (without acetaldehyde), filter in dry air without carbon dioxide and moisture, remove impurities such as chloride, carbonate, silicate, concentrate filtrate to remove ethanol, and separate the resulting solid sodium ethanol with concentration. After washing with pure anhydrous ethanol several times and long time vacuum heating to remove residual ethanol, the purity of sodium hydroxide is about 99.8%. [1]
 
 检测 
Detection
 
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 对库存的氢氧化钠每季度至少检测一次,由于氢氧化钠放置时间过长,表面会与空气中二氧化碳发生反应,因此需要检测其有效成分的含量。将氢氧化钠试样充分溶解后,用标准的盐酸溶液来滴定,且同时用酚酞作指示剂,来测定氢氧化钠有效成分的含量。测试方法如下: [3] 
The sodium hydroxide in stock is detected at least once a quarter. Because the sodium hydroxide is placed for too long, the surface will react with carbon dioxide in the air, so it is necessary to detect the content of its active components. After the sodium hydroxide sample was fully dissolved, it was titrated with standard hydrochloric acid solution and phenolphthalein was used as indicator to determine the content of the active component of sodium hydroxide. [3]: The test methods are as follows
 
 (1)取干净的已知重量的称量瓶,加入20g左右的固体氢氧化钠,将盖盖紧称重;再用量筒量取40mL左右的氢氧化钠溶液倒入称量瓶。然后将试样移入500mL锥形瓶中,用蒸馏水冲洗称量瓶3~4次,再加100mL左右蒸馏水,慢慢摇动至全部溶解,稀释至400mL左右,冷却到室温后,充分混合。 [3] 
(1) Take a clean weighing bottle of known weight, add about 20 g of solid sodium hydroxide, weigh the cover tightly, and then pour about 40 mL of sodium hydroxide solution into the weighing bottle. Then the sample was transferred into 500 mL conical bottle, washed with distilled water for 3~4 times, then added about 100 mL of distilled water, slowly shaken to all dissolved, diluted to about 400 mL, cooled to room temperature, fully mixed. [3]
 
 (2)用移液管吸取试液50mL注入250mL锥形瓶中,加入酚酞指示剂5滴,以1mol/L盐酸溶液滴定到恰好红色消失,记录耗用盐酸的体积,然后再加入甲基橙指示液两滴,继续用1mol/L盐酸滴定至溶液由黄变为橙色,记录这时共耗用盐酸的体积。 [3] 
Use pipette to absorb test solution 50 mL to inject 250 mL conical bottle, add phenolphthalein indicator 5 drops, titrate with 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid solution to just red disappear, record the volume of hydrochloric acid consumed, then add methyl orange indicator solution two drops, Continue titration with 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid until the solution changes from yellow to orange, recording the volume of hydrochloric acid consumed at this time. [3]
 
 (3)氢氧化钠的有效成分含量的计算:氢氧化钠的含量= 
 (3) Calculation of active ingredient content of sodium hydroxide := of sodium hydroxide content
 
  

 
 。式中:C1——1mol/L盐酸浓度;V1——滴定至酚酞等当点时耗用盐酸的体积,mL;V2——滴定至甲基橙等当点耗用盐酸的体积,mL; m——试样的质量,g。 [3] 
C1——1 mol/L concentration of hydrochloric acid; volume of hydrochloric acid consumed V1C1—— titration to phenolphthalein equivalent, volume of hydrochloric acid consumed mL;V2C1—— titration to methyl orange equivalent, mass and g. of samples [3]
 
 应用 
Applications
 
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 氢氧化钠主要用于造纸、纤维素浆粕的生产和肥皂、合成洗涤剂、合成脂肪酸的生产以及动植物油脂的精炼。纺织印染工业用作棉布退浆剂、煮炼剂和丝光剂。化学工业用于生产硼砂、氰化钠、甲酸、草酸、苯酚等。石油工业用于精炼石油制品,并用于油田钻井泥浆中。还用于生产氧化铝、金属锌和金属铜的表面处理以及玻璃、搪瓷、制革、医药、染料和农药方面。食品级产品在食品工业上用做酸中和剂,可作柑橘、桃子等的去皮剂,也可作为空瓶、空罐等容器的洗涤剂,以及脱色剂、脱臭剂。 [1] 
Sodium hydroxide is mainly used in paper making, production of cellulose pulp and soap, synthetic detergent, production of synthetic fatty acids and refining of animal and plant oils. Textile printing and dyeing industry is used as cotton desizing agent, cooking agent and mercerizing agent. The chemical industry is used to produce borax, sodium cyanide, formic acid, oxalic acid, phenol and so on. The petroleum industry is used to refine petroleum products and in oil drilling mud. Also used in the production of alumina, zinc and copper metal surface treatment and glass, enamel, leather, medicine, dyes and pesticides. Food-grade products used in the food industry as acid neutralizer, can be used as citrus, peach and other peeling agents, but also as empty bottles Detergents for containers such as empty tanks, as well as decolorizers and deodorizers. [1]
 
 氢氧化钠用作基本试剂时,可作中和剂、配合掩蔽剂、沉淀剂、沉淀掩蔽剂、少量二氧化碳和水的吸收剂,薄层分析法测定酮固醇的显色剂等,广泛应用于制造各种钠盐、肥皂、纸浆,整理棉织品、丝、粘胶纤维,橡胶制品的再生,金属清洗,电镀,漂白等。 [1] 
 When sodium hydroxide is used as a basic reagent, it can be used as neutralizer, masking agent, precipitator, precipitation masking agent, absorbent of a small amount of carbon dioxide and water. It is widely used in the manufacture of various sodium salts, soap, pulp, cotton fabrics, silk, viscose fibers, rubber products regeneration, metal cleaning, electroplating, bleaching, etc. [1]
 
 在化妆品膏霜类中,氢氧化钠和硬脂酸等皂化起乳化剂作用,用以制造雪花膏、洗发膏等。 [1] 
In cosmetics creams, sodium hydroxide and stearic acid saponification acts as emulsifiers to make snowflake cream, shampoo and so on. [1]
 
 储存 
Storage
 
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 氢氧化钠应储存于阴凉、干燥、通风良好的库房。应远离火种、热源。库温不超过35℃,相对湿度不超过80%。包装必须密封,切勿受潮。应与易(可)燃物、酸类等分开存放,切忌混储。储区应备有合适的材料收容泄漏物。 [1] 
Sodium hydroxide should be stored in a cool, dry and well ventilated warehouse. Should be away from fire, heat source. Reservoir temperature does not exceed 35℃, relative humidity does not exceed 80. Packing must be sealed and not dampened. Should be stored separately with flammable substances, acids, etc., avoid mixed storage. The storage area shall be equipped with suitable materials to accommodate leaks. [1]
 
 安全防护措施 
 Safety precautions
 
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Editor
 
 工程控制 
Engineering control
 
 密闭操作,注意通风 [2] 
Close operation, pay attention to ventilation [2]
 
 呼吸系统防护 
Respiratory protection
 
 必要时佩戴防毒口罩 [2] 
 Gas mask [2] if necessary
 
 眼睛防护 
Eye protection
 
 戴化学安全防护眼镜 [2] 
[2] wearing chemical safety glasses
 
 身体防护 
 Physical protection
 
 穿工作服(防腐材料制作) [2] 
 [2] in overalls (made of embalmed materials); and
 
 手防护 
 Hand protection
 
 戴橡胶手套 [2] 
 [2] wearing rubber gloves
 
 其他 
 Other
 
 工作后,沐浴更衣。注意个人清洁卫生。 [2] 
After work, bathe and change clothes. Pay attention to personal hygiene. [2]
 
 应急措施 
Contingency measures
 
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 急救措施 
 First aid measures
 
 眼睛接触:应立即提起眼睑,用流动清水或生理盐水冲洗至少15分钟,或用3%硼酸溶液冲洗,迅速就医。吸入:迅速脱离现场值空气新鲜处。必要时进行人工呼吸,迅速就医。食入:患者清醒时立即漱口,口服稀释的醋或柠檬汁,迅速就医。 [2] 
Eye contact: immediately lift eyelids, rinse with flowing water or saline for at least 15 minutes, or rinse with 3% boric acid solution. Inhalation: get out of the fresh air quickly. If necessary, artificial respiration, rapid medical treatment. Ingestion: gargle immediately when awake, take diluted vinegar or lemon juice and consult a doctor quickly. [2]
 
 泄露处理 
Disclosure management
 
 隔离泄漏污染区,周围设警告标志,建议应急处理人员戴好防毒面具,穿化学防护服。不要直接接触泄漏物,用大量水冲洗,经稀释的洗水放入废水系统。如大量泄漏,收集回收或无害处理后废弃。 [2] 
 Isolation of contaminated areas, warning signs around, emergency workers are advised to wear gas masks and chemical protective clothing. Do not contact the leak directly, rinse with a large amount of water, dilute the washing water into the wastewater system. Such as large leakage, collection, recovery or harmless treatment after waste. [2]
 
 消防方法 
Fire-fighting methods
 
 灭火方法:消防人员必须穿工作服(防腐材料制作)。 [2] 
Fire extinguishing method: firefighters must wear work clothes (made of anticorrosive materials). [2]
 
 灭火剂:雾状水、砂土。 [2] 
埃伦火娃:看不见水。 [2]
 
 氢氧化钠水体污染处理 
 Sodium hydroxide water pollution treatment
 
 编辑 
Editor
 
 对氢氧化钠泄露到水中,依据估算泄露量和水体特点作相应处理。根据水体环境和监测pH状况决定是否投加或投加多少酸中和,加多少水稀释。 [4] 
The leakage of sodium hydroxide into water is treated according to the estimated leakage and water characteristics. According to the water environment and monitoring pH conditions, determine whether to add or add how much acid neutralization, how much water dilution. [4]
 
 分析方法 
Analysis methods
 
 氢氧化钠浓度的测定通常用酸碱中和滴定法,以甲基橙为指示剂,以盐酸标准溶液滴定至由黄变橙为终点。 [4] 
The concentration of sodium hydroxide is usually determined by acid-base neutralization titration, with methyl orange as indicator and hydrochloric acid standard solution end point from yellow to orange. [4]
 
 水体污染硫酸中和 
 Sulfuric acid neutralization in water pollution
 
  

 
 浓硫酸先稀释后再投加,中和氢氧化钠所需硫酸最小量可用公式y=125.07x计算;y为浓硫酸的投加质量,浓度为98%;x为氢氧化钠的泄露质量,即x=wm,w为泄露氢氧化钠的质量分数,m为泄露氢氧化钠的质量。 [4] 
The minimum amount of sulfuric acid needed to neutralize sodium hydroxide can be calculated y=125.07 x; the y is the mass of concentrated sulfuric acid, the concentration is 98; the x is the leakage mass of sodium hydroxide, that is, the mass fraction of leaking sodium hydroxide. m is the mass of leaking sodium hydroxide. [4]
 
 图片引自 [4] 。该图为泄露氢氧化钠与投加硫酸的关系图。 [4] 
A picture is drawn from [4]. The diagram shows the relationship between leaking sodium hydroxide and adding sulfuric acid. [4]
 
 水体污染盐酸中和 
Water Pollution Hydrochloric Acid Neutralization
 
  

 
 浓盐酸先稀释后投加。中和氢氧化钠所需盐酸最小量可用公式y=303.77x计算;y为浓盐酸的投加质量,浓度为30%;x为氢氧化钠的实际泄露质量,即x=wm,w为泄露氢氧化钠的质量分数,m为泄露氢氧化钠的质量。 [4] 
The concentrated hydrochloric acid is diluted first and then added. The minimum amount of hydrochloric acid needed to neutralize sodium hydroxide can be calculated y=303.77 x; the y is the dosage mass of concentrated hydrochloric acid, the concentration is 30; the x is the actual leakage mass of sodium hydroxide, that is, the mass fraction of leaking sodium hydroxide. m is the mass of leaking sodium hydroxide. [4]
 
 图片引自 [4] 。该图为泄露氢氧化钠与投加盐酸的关系图。 [4] 
A picture is drawn from [4]. The diagram shows the relationship between leakage of sodium hydroxide and addition of hydrochloric acid. [4]
 
 词条图册更多图册 
 More entries
 
  

 
 氢氧化钠的概述图(2) 
Overview of sodium hydroxide (2)
 
 钠化合物 
Sodium compounds
 
 ▪ NaAlO2 
 ▪NaAlO2
 
 ▪ NaBH3(CN) 
 ▪NaBH3(CN)
 
 ▪ NaBH4 
▪NaBH4
 
 ▪ NaBr 
▪NaBr
 
 ▪ NaBrO3 
 ▪NaBrO3
 
 ▪ NaCH3COO 
▪NaCH3COO
 
 ▪ NaCN 
▪NaCN
 
 ▪ NaC6H5CO2 
▪NaC6H5CO2
 
 ▪ NaC6H4(OH)CO2 
 ▪NaC6H4(OH) CO2
 
 ▪ NaCl 
 ▪NaCl
 
 ▪ NaClO 
▪NaClO
 
 ▪ NaClO2 
▪NaClO2
 
 ▪ NaClO3 
 ▪NaClO3
 
 ▪ NaClO4 
▪NaClO4
 
 ▪ NaF 
▪NaF
 
 ▪ NaH 
▪NaH
 
 ▪ NaHCO3 
▪NaHCO3
 
 ▪ NaHSO3 
▪NaHSO3
 
 ▪ NaHSO4 
 ▪NaHSO4
 
 ▪ NaI 
 ▪NaI
 
 ▪ NaIO3 
 ▪NaIO3
 
 ▪ NaIO4 
 ▪NaIO4
 
 ▪ NaMnO4 
▪NaMnO4
 
 ▪ NaNH2 
▪NaNH2
 
 ▪ NaNO2 
 ▪NaNO2
 
 ▪ NaNO3 
▪NaNO3
 
 ▪ NaN3 
▪NaN3
 
 ▪ NaOH 
▪NaOH
 
 ▪ NaPO2H2 
▪NaPO2H2
 
 ▪ NaReO4 
▪NaReO4
 
 ▪ NaSCN 
 ▪NaSCN
 
 ▪ NaSH 
 ▪NaSH
 
 ▪ NaTcO4 
▪NaTcO4
 
 ▪ NaVO3 
 ▪NaVO3
 
 ▪ Na2CO3 
▪Na2CO3
 
 ▪ Na2C2O4 
 ▪Na2C2O4
 
 ▪ Na2CrO4 
 ▪Na2CrO4
 
 ▪ Na2Cr2O7 
 ▪Na2Cr2O7
 
 ▪ Na2MnO4 
 ▪Na2MnO4
 
 ▪ Na2MoO4 
▪Na2MoO4
 
 ▪ Na2O 
▪Na2O
 
 ▪ Na2O2 
▪Na2O2
 
 ▪ NaO2 
▪NaO2
 
 ▪ Na2O(UO3)2 
 ▪Na2O (UO3)2
 
 ▪ Na2S 
 ▪Na2S
 
 ▪ Na2SO3 
▪Na2SO3
 
 ▪ Na2SO4 
▪Na2SO4
 
 ▪ Na2S2O3 
▪Na2S2O3
 
 ▪ Na2S2O4 
 ▪Na2S2O4
 
 ▪ Na2S2O5 
 ▪Na2S2O5
 
 ▪ Na2S2O6 
 ▪Na2S2O6
 
 ▪ Na2S2O7 
▪Na2S2O7
 
 ▪ Na2S2O8 
▪Na2S2O8
 
 ▪ Na2Se 
 ▪Na2Se
 
 ▪ Na2SeO3 
 ▪Na2SeO3
 
 ▪ Na2SeO4 
▪Na2SeO4
 
 ▪ Na2SiO3 
▪Na2SiO3
 
 ▪ Na2Te 
 ▪Na2Te
 
 ▪ Na2TeO3 
▪Na2TeO3
 
 ▪ Na2Ti3O7 
▪Na2Ti3O7
 
 ▪ Na2U2O7 
▪Na2U2O7
 
 ▪ NaWO4 
▪NaWO4
 
 ▪ Na2Zn(OH)4 
▪Na2Zn (OH)4
 
 ▪ Na3N 
 ▪Na3N
 
 ▪ Na3P 
 ▪Na3P
 
 ▪ Na3VO4 
 ▪Na3VO4
 
 ▪ Na4Fe(CN)6 
 ▪Na4Fe (CN)6
 
 ▪ Na5P3O10 
▪Na5P3O10
 
 ▪ NaBiO3 
▪NaBiO3
 
 典型一元强碱 
Typical Univine Strong Base
 
 ▪ 氢氧化锂 
▪ lithium hydroxide
 
 ▪ 氢氧化钠 
▪ sodium hydroxide
 
 ▪ 氢氧化钾 
▪ potassium hydroxide
 
 ▪ 氢氧化铯 
 ▪ cesium hydroxide
 
 化合物 
Compounds
 
 A-F 
 a-f
 
 ▪ 钡 
 ▪ barium
 
 ▪ 氮气 
 ▪ nitrogen
 
 ▪ 二氧化氮 
▪ nitrogen dioxide
 
 ▪ 二氧化硅 
▪ silica
 
 ▪ 二氧化硫 
▪ sulphur dioxide
 
 ▪ 二氧化锰 
▪ manganese dioxide
 
 ▪ 二氧化碳 
▪ CO2
 
 以上化合物按中文名拼音首字母顺序排列 
 The above compounds are listed in alphabetical order
 
 G-L 
 g-l
 
 M-R 
m-r
 
 S-Z 
 s-z

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